Currency Arbitrage with Decreasing Rate

12th JLTi Code Jam – Feb 2018

Here we extend the Currency Arbitrage problem that expected us to re-compute the best path cost matrix when a new currency arrived along with some rates from and/or to the existing currencies. We came up with a solution at O(n2) cost.

If we look at the currency exchange issues, we realize that new currencies are not arriving every day. Rather, rates among the existing currencies are the ones which are changing every now and then. So it’s equally, if not more, important to find a solution as to how to address the rate changes and compute the cost matrix.

Rate between two currencies can either increase or decrease. Here we will focus only on rate decrease.

Given that we have an existing best path cost matrix, when a rate between two currencies decreases what shall we do? Well, just like Currency Arbitrage problem, we have two options:  i) re-compute the cost matrix from the scratch, using Floyd-Warshall, at a cost O(V3) and ii) update the already computed cost matrix using some partial computations. This problem expects a solution using the second option.

Input:

1 USD = 1.380 SGD

1 SGD = 3.080 MYR

1 MYR = 15.120 INR

1 INR = 0.012 GBP

1 GBP = 1.30 USD

I CAD = 0.57 GBP

1 GBP = 1.29 USD

Explanation: We have 7 inputs here. Each time an input is given, we need to present an output and hence, we have 7 lines of output. We already know how to incrementally add a new currency. The first 4 do not result in any arbitrage; we output “No luck here”. For 5th, we have an arbitrage and we output the same. For 6th, we continue to have the same arbitrage and we again output the same.

At 7th input, we see the existing rate from GBP to USD, which was 1.30 last time, has changed to 1.29 now. With this new rate in effect, the arbitrage disappears now. Output should be “No luck here”.

Since we are dealing with only decreasing rate, in input, between two currencies, rate will only decrease. For example, an input like 1 GBP = 1.31 USD will never appear.

When multiple arbitrages exist, printing any one will do.

Output:

No luck here

No luck here

No luck here

No luck here

USD -> SGD -> MYR -> INR -> GBP -> USD

USD -> SGD -> MYR -> INR -> GBP -> USD

No luck here

Task: For each line of input, for each new vertex, incrementally adjust/add shortest paths at a cost (time) of O(|V|2), detect the presence of an arbitrage and output as specified. Use existing solution for this.

If input contains a rate that decreases since last time, accommodate that change in the best path cost matrix using some partial computations, instead of computing the whole matrix from the scratch.

Index

Author: Gopal Das

I am working as a Principal Consultant at JLT Interactive Pte Ltd, Singapore. I have a BS in Computer Science & Engineering from Khulna University and ME in Internet Science & Engineering from Indian Institute of Science (IISc). I have a few publications on Query Optimization in RDBMS in ACM SIGMOD, IEEE ICDE etc. I was a founding team member and VP Engineering of iTwin, a spinoff from A*STAR. I am working as a software engineer for 14 years. I am interested in Algorithms, Database, Security, Machine Learning, and Blockchain among others. I am a father of two children and live in Singapore. www.linkedin.com/in/dasgopal https://github.com/gopalcdas

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